There is limited information on the current distribution of Aedes spp. mosquitoes in Cameroon. Aedes albopictus was detected in five Southern Cameroon towns in 2000 and a temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus was conducted in 2017 but past surveillance efforts only provide preliminary data and do not adequately characterize Aedes vector distribution in Cameroon. Aedes-borne diseases like dengue, Zika and chikungunya are emerging in several countries across the world. One recent estimate indicates that around 390 million dengue infections occur annually leading to 96 million (67–136 million) clinical cases. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were identified as the main epidemic vectors of these diseases. Both species are established in sub-Saharan Africa, where Ae. aegypti is native and Ae. albopictus, originated in Southeast Asia, has invaded all the five continents
including Africa in the past 30-40 years. In order to prepare Cameroon and the Central African regions to potential outbreaks, it is vital to establish the resistance profile of these species to the main insecticides. We plan in this study to: (1) establish the distribution of mosquitoes in Cameroon, (2) establish the circulation of arborviruses in Cameroon by assessing the prevalence of infection in natural populations of both Aedes species with dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses; (3) establish their susceptibility profile to main insecticides and (4) investigating the potential resistance mechanisms involved.