STORIES

Expert view to prevent a Dengue outbreak in Cameroon – Dr. Basile Kamgang

Dengue is the main Aedes-borne viral diseases with nearly 390 million annual dengue infections and 96 million (67–136 million) clinical cases [1]. This disease is caused by the dengue virus (DENV1, DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4) belonging to the Flavivirus genus. The dengue virus is transmitted to humans by a bite of an infected Aedes mosquito notably Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.  Dengue was previously considered as scarce in Africa in general probably due to the under-diagnosis and the similar symptoms with malaria which is endemic in the region.

Symptoms

It will be interesting to highlight that the common symptoms of dengue are  fever, severe headaches, pain behind the eyes, severe joint and muscle pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting.

Outbreaks and Occurrences

However, during the two last decades there has been a rise in dengue cases reported in Cameroon [2-7] suggesting the modification of epidemiology of this disease. Coincidentally, the emergence of this virus in urban areas in Cameroon matches the introduction of Ae. albopictus in the country. Aedes albopictus is an invasive species which originates from south East Asia and was reported for the first time in Cameroon circa 2000 [8] while Ae. aegypti is indigenous in Africa and documented in Cameroon since 1950. You should know, there is no efficient vaccine and specific treatment against dengue, vector control remains the cornerstone to prevent and control outbreaks.

Our works at the Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID) about dengue virus is to characterise dengue vectors and establish the entomological risks of outbreak occurrence. Drawing from our work, we demonstrate that Ae. aegypti is present across Cameroon while Ae. albopictus has a distribution limited in the southern part of the country [9] suggesting a climate limitation of invasion of this species in the North.

Our research also demonstrates that both species breed mainly in discarded tanks and used tyres in Cameroon as in other Central African countries [10, 11]. Having assessed the ability of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus collected in different ecological settings in Cameroon, our analysis showed that Ae. aegypti can easily transmit dengue in areas where both species are found. However, in the North notably in Maroua and Benoue, Ae. aegypti populations were found resistant to dengue transmission [12]. Our data revealed the variable level of susceptibility according to the population origin and insecticides tested except to organophosphates (temephos and fenithrotion) which were fully susceptible [13]. These data are relevant to plan arbovirus vector control programmes in Cameroon which is currently lacking and help in facilitating further works.

 It is important to draw the attention of the Ministry of Public Health to the fact that the entomological risk of outbreak occurrence is real and it has become urgent to set up a programme to fight against abovirus vectors in Cameroon.  

And to the population, while waiting for an arbovirus vector control programme to be put in place, it is important to take action by elimiating every container that is no longer in use as well as get rid of used tires. This will greatly help reduce the ovipositing sites of Aedes and therefore reduce the density of adult mosquitoes.

1.       Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Farlow AW, Moyes CL, Drake JM, Brownstein JS, Hoen AG, Sankoh O et al: The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature 2013, 496(7446):504-507.

2.      Ndip LM, Bouyer DH, Travassos Da Rosa AP, Titanji VP, Tesh RB, Walker DH: Acute spotted fever rickettsiosis among febrile patients, Cameroon. Emerging infectious diseases 2004, 10(3):432-437.

3.      Kuniholm MH, Wolfe ND, Huang CY, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Tamoufe U, LeBreton M, Burke DS, Gubler DJ: Seroprevalence and distribution of Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae arboviral infections in rural Cameroonian adults. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 2006, 74(6):1078-1083.

4.      Yousseu FBS, Nemg FBS, Ngouanet SA, Mekanda FMO, Demanou M: Detection and serotyping of dengue viruses in febrile patients consulting at the New-Bell District Hospital in Douala, Cameroon. PloS one 2018, 13(10):e0204143.

5.       Nemg Simo FB, Sado Yousseu FB, Evouna Mbarga A, Bigna JJ, Melong A, Ntoude A, Kamgang B, Bouyne R, Moundipa Fewou P, Demanou M: Investigation of an Outbreak of Dengue Virus Serotype 1 in a Rural Area of Kribi, South Cameroon: A Cross-Sectional Study. Intervirology 2018, 61(6):265-271.

6.      Monamele GC, Demanou M: First documented evidence of dengue and malaria co-infection in children attending two health centers in Yaounde, Cameroon. The Pan African medical journal 2018, 29:227.

7.       Demanou M, Pouillot R, Grandadam M, Boisier P, Kamgang B, Herve JP, Rogier C, Rousset D, Paupy C: Evidence of dengue virus transmission and factors associated with the presence of anti-dengue virus antibodies in humans in three major towns in Cameroon. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2014, 8(7):e2950.

8.      Fontenille D, Toto JC: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), a potential new Dengue vector in southern Cameroon. Emerging infectious diseases 2001, 7(6):1066-1067.

9.      Tedjou AN, Kamgang B, Yougang AP, Njiokou F, Wondji CS: Update on the geographical distribution and prevalence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), two major arbovirus vectors in Cameroon. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2019, 13(3):e0007137.

10.     Tedjou AN, Kamgang B, Yougang AP, Wilson-Bahun TA, Njiokou F, Wondji CS: Patterns of Ecological Adaptation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Stegomyia Indices Highlight the Potential Risk of Arbovirus Transmission in Yaoundé, the Capital City of Cameroon. Pathogens 2020, 9(6):491.

11.     Kamgang B, Ngoagouni C, Manirakiza A, Nakoune E, Paupy C, Kazanji M: Temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2013, 7(12):e2590.

12.     Kamgang B, Vazeille M, Tedjou AN, Wilson-Bahun TA, Yougang AP, Mousson L, Wondji C, Failloux A-B: Risk of dengue in Central Africa: Vector competence studies with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations and dengue 2 virus. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2019, 13(12):e0007985.

13.     Yougang AP, Kamgang B, Tedjou AN, Wilson-Bahun TA, Njiokou F, Wondji CS: Nationwide profiling of insecticide resistance in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cameroon. PloS one 2020, 15(6):e0234572.

STORIES

FIRST PhD Doctor; Magellan TCHOUAKUI, a CRID first fruit

Curled from a pool of Ph.D students being mentored at the Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID) Magellan TCHOUAKUI emerges first Ph.D now a Doctor from CRID. To this effect, CRID is proud of her own very first PhD Dr. Magellan TCHOUAKUI. who successfully defended his PhD on June 16, 2020 at the University of Yaoundé I.

Under the supervision of Professor of Genetics at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Prof Charles Wondji and Lecturer at the University of Yaoundé I Prof. Flobert NJIOKOU, Magellan built his topic “Fitness cost of metabolic resistance to insecticide in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus”, a research work which took off in October 2015.

As the new Doctor reveals, after a successful masters degree on “lymphatic filariasis”, he was recommended to Prof Charles WONDJI by his previous supervisor Professor Flobert NJIOKOU to work on one of the objectives of his Senior Wellcome Trust Fellowship project aiming at evaluating the impact of resistance to insecticides on the efficacy of malaria vector control tools. It is here that his success journey with CRID kicked off.

A success story is not without challenges- amongst the many challenges encountered during this thesis, Dr. TCHOUAKUI Magellan reveals that, at the beginning of his thesis, there was a need for a simple technic to detect and map the distribution of one important resistant marker on what his study was based (L119F-GSTe2 mutation) but he succeeded in designing and implementing a simple PCR-based technic for this purpose and the technic is now being used by many other researchers.

We also faced a challenge in maintaining the field strain of Anopheles funestus in the lab for more than two generations in order to analyze a potential reversal to susceptibility in the absence of insecticide. To overcome this, we used two laboratory strain for this assement” says Dr. TCHOUAKUI

Results obtained from this research were presented at various national and international conferences which helped in the publication of four (04) major research articles in reputable internationals journals.

From his research thesis, several recommendations have been made to the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) to improve malaria vector control.

wide view of defense session

We recommended to NCMP to distribute to the populations the PB0-based nets which showed a better efficacy; rotate the classes of insecticides used in vector control in order to slow the spread of resistance; implement alternative control measures such as targeting the mating swarms to control malaria vectors; finally we recommended the use of either carbamate or organophosphate insecticide for the coming Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) since the vectors were found to be highly resistant to pyrethroid insecticide which is the most use” Magellan adds

Magellan TCHOUAKUI affirms that, in pursuit of his career as researcher, he continues to as a Post-doctoral Research Assistant at CRID working in the Senior Renewal Fellowship project of Prof Charles Wondji. This project aims at Elucidating the complex evolution of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus Africa-wide and its impact on control programmes.

The two (02) hour PhD defense ceremony was massively attended by staff from CRID who showed their love and support in various capacities as Magellan celebrated this mile stone.

STORIES

Fighting Malaria in Africa, a CRID perspective

Mosquittoes in Africa: expert research and recommendations to National Malaria Control Programmes – Dr. NDO Cyrille, Vector Biologist, Head of Parasitology and Microbiology Department at CRID

Mosquittoes in Africa: expert research and recommendations to National Malaria Control Programmes – Dr. NDO Cyrille, Vector Biologist, Head of Parasitology and Microbiology Department at CRID

Africa has over 10 indigenous Anopheles species with ability to transmit Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria [2, 3]. Therefore, control of these vector species is the pillar of prevention strategies. Vector control relies extensively on the use of pyrethroid-based insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor residual spraying. Mosquitoes have however developed resistance against the insecticides actually in use. More so, in some settings, it has been noticed that instead of biting indoor (as people are protected by bed net), some mosquito populations have developed a new tendency of biting outdoor in the early hours of the day when people are not protected by the bed net. This high insecticide resistance profile (and associated change in biting behaviour) is a major challenge to the efforts of National Malaria Control Programmes in fighting the killer disease [4, 5].

The Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID) has over the years sort to understand the challenges in the fight against malaria vectors, and to find ways to improve the efficacy of current vector control tools. Drawing from studies conducted in Central, West and  East Africa, cases of high resistance levels to insecticides in major malaria vectors leading to loss of efficacy of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) have been reported [6-13].

 In order to improve malaria control and a possible disease elimination which is backed in the agenda [14], there is an urgent need to first preserve the optimal efficacy of existing vector control tools. We advise National Malaria Control Programmes to conduct routine entomological surveillance for determination of insecticide resistance profile and mechanisms in vector populations, using standard WHO bioassays protocols, but also molecular techniques that can allow early detection of target site [15, 16] and metabolic-mediated resistance [6, 11, 17]. Availability of these data will help to better design resistance management strategies, and to implement evidence-based and integrated vector control.

Meanwhile researchers at the CRID are working, in collaboration with the broad malaria research community,  in  indentifying new insecticides with different mode of action and/or in developing alternative vector control tools such as the sterile insect technique [18, 19].

References

1.   WHO: World Malaria Report 2019. WHO Global Malaria Programme. World Health Organiszation https://wwwwhoint/publications-detail/world-malaria-report-2019.

2.   Fontenille D, Cohuet A, Awono-Ambene PH, Antonio-Nkondjio C, Wondji C, Kengne P, Dia I, Boccolini D, Duchemin JB, Rajaonarivelo V et al: [Systematics and biology of Anopheles vectors of Plasmodium in Africa, recent data]. Med Trop (Mars) 2003, 63(3):247-253.

3.   Antonio-Nkondjio C, Kerah CH, Simard F, Awono-Ambene P, Chouaibou M, Tchuinkam T, Fontenille D: Complexity of the malaria vectorial system in Cameroon: contribution of secondary vectors to malaria transmission. J Med Entomol 2006, 43(6):1215-1221.

4.   Benelli G, Beier JC: Current vector control challenges in the fight against malaria. Acta Trop 2017, 174:91-96.

5.   Sougoufara S, Doucoure S, Backe Sembene PM, Harry M, Sokhna C: Challenges for malaria vector control in sub-Saharan Africa: Resistance and behavioral adaptations in Anopheles populations. J Vector Borne Dis 2017, 54(1):4-15.

6.   Weedall GD, Mugenzi LMJ, Menze BD, Tchouakui M, Ibrahim SS, Amvongo-Adjia N, Irving H, Wondji MJ, Tchoupo M, Djouaka R et al: A cytochrome P450 allele confers pyrethroid resistance on a major African malaria vector, reducing insecticide-treated bednet efficacy. Sci Transl Med 2019, 11(484).

7.   Tchigossou G, Djouaka R, Akoton R, Riveron JM, Irving H, Atoyebi S, Moutairou K, Yessoufou A, Wondji CS: Molecular basis of permethrin and DDT resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Benin. Parasit Vectors 2018, 11(1):602.

8.  Kamgang B, Tchapga W, Ngoagouni C, Sangbakembi-Ngounou C, Wondji M, Riveron JM, Wondji CS: Exploring insecticide resistance mechanisms in three major malaria vectors from Bangui in Central African Republic. Pathog Glob Health 2018, 112(7):349-359.

9.   Riveron JM, Watsenga F, Irving H, Irish SR, Wondji CS: High Plasmodium Infection Rate and Reduced Bed Net Efficacy in Multiple Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. J Infect Dis 2018, 217(2):320-328.

10. Ibrahim SS, Fadel AN, Tchouakui M, Terence E, Wondji MJ, Tchoupo M, Kerah-Hinzoumbe C, Wanji S, Wondji CS: High insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii in Chad Republic. Infect Dis Poverty 2019, 8(1):100.

11. Mugenzi LMJ, Menze BD, Tchouakui M, Wondji MJ, Irving H, Tchoupo M, Hearn J, Weedall GD, Riveron JM, Wondji CS: Cis-regulatory CYP6P9b P450 variants associated with loss of insecticide-treated bed net efficacy against Anopheles funestus. Nat Commun 2019, 10(1):4652.

12. Ibrahim SS, Mukhtar MM, Irving H, Labbo R, Kusimo MO, Mahamadou I, Wondji CS: High Plasmodium infection and multiple insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii from Sahel of Niger Republic. Malar J 2019, 18(1):181.

13. Riveron JM, Huijben S, Tchapga W, Tchouakui M, Wondji MJ, Tchoupo M, Irving H, Cuamba N, Maquina M, Paaijmans K et al: Escalation of Pyrethroid Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus Induces a Loss of Efficacy of Piperonyl Butoxide-Based Insecticide-Treated Nets in Mozambique. J Infect Dis 2019, 220(3):467-475.

14. Rabinovich RN, Drakeley C, Djimde AA, Hall BF, Hay SI, Hemingway J, Kaslow DC, Noor A, Okumu F, Steketee R et al: malERA: An updated research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication. PLoS Med 2017, 14(11):e1002456.

15. Nwane P, Etang J, Chouasmall yi UM, Toto JC, Mimpfoundi R, Simard F: Kdr-based insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s populations in. BMC Res Notes 2011, 4:463.

16. Djogbenou L, Weill M, Hougard JM, Raymond M, Akogbeto M, Chandre F: Characterization of insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R) in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): resistance levels and dominance. J Med Entomol 2007, 44(5):805-810.

17. Riveron JM, Yunta C, Ibrahim SS, Djouaka R, Irving H, Menze BD, Ismail HM, Hemingway J, Ranson H, Albert A et al: A single mutation in the GSTe2 gene allows tracking of metabolically based insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector. Genome Biol 2014, 15(2):R27.

18. Lobo NF, Achee NL, Greico J, Collins FH: Modern Vector Control. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2018, 8(1).

19. Ndo C, Poumachu Y, Metitsi D, Awono-Ambene HP, Tchuinkam T, Gilles JLR, Bourtzis K: Isolation and characterization of a temperature-sensitive lethal strain of Anopheles arabiensis for SIT-based application. Parasit Vectors 2018, 11(Suppl 2):659.

STORIES

Prof Charles Wondji in conversation with MESA Alliance

The Executive Director of CRID and Professor of Genetics at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Prof Charles Wondji, on May 26, was in conversation with the MESA Alliance, a living database which captures research projects and institutions’ portfolios in malaria elimination and eradication.

The conversation with Professor Charles Wondji focused on Genetic and genomic tools to fight vector-borne diseases where he reveals in depth the importance of genetic epidemiology research in malaria surveillance and control, how genetic epidemiology can facilitate the management of insecticide resistance in Africa, how it can improve the operational decisions made by National Malaria Control Programmes, challenges researchers are faced with and the necessary steps that the malaria community could take in order to advance towards malaria elimination.

Find and read complete interview here http://www.mesamalaria.org/updates/genetic-and-genomic-tools-fight-vector-borne-diseases-conversation-prof-charles-wondji

STORIES

Vector Control and the Emergence of Resistance, Charles S. Wondji – ASTMH 2019

Malaria infection is still one of the major causes of deaths in populations of the African continent. The global tally of malaria deaths lingers around 400,000-500,000 deaths annually. Since 2000, the incidence of malaria has reduced by 17% and mortality rates by 26%, giving hopes for a possible control towards elimination. Although malaria case incidence has fallen globally since 2010, the rate of decline has stalled and even reversed in some regions. Mortality rates have followed a similar pattern. National Malaria Programs and researchers still battle a plethora of challenges ranging from case management, transmission dynamics, insecticide and drug resistance, requiring innovative approaches. Presumptive treatment is still syndromic in most health establishments

Treatment is frequently interrupted by drug stock outs and systemic dysfunctions of the health sector. With the known 450 anopheles species, of which 60 can potentially transmit malaria, resistance to insecticides has become a worrisome undertaking for malaria control programs in the face of other control program difficulties of effective interventions and environmental hygiene. Besides there is great genetic diversity and a changing epidemiology of resistant parasite populations. The malaria control programs manage these bottle necks amid weak heath systems and are still faced with malaria case management inadequacies and poor mass drug administration. Combination options such as with drugs and vaccines or the identification of the anopheline metabolic resistance biomarker in Cameroon, may provide new insights into control efforts.

These innovations, in addition to other solutions to overcome programmatic challenges, is being debated as an Africa-led leadership approach towards malaria elimination. The goal of this symposium is to provide African research leaders’ perspectives on challenges and ways to circumvent programmatic challenges for malaria elimination. The specific objectives are: i) to demonstrate the importance of a holistic approach to malaria elimination in Africa; ii) to outline the challenges encountered by National Malaria Control Programs in Africa in vector control, parasite resistance amid mass drug administration, and programmatic related issues; and iii) to propose solutions and directions for further consideration in interventions towards malaria elimination.

Listen to and download Prof Charles’ presentation at the 68th ASTMH annual meeting in Maryland, November 2019 http://www.mesamalaria.org/resource-hub/astmh-2019-charles-s-wondji-vector-control-and-emergence-resistance

STORIES

PRESS RELEASE – TVCAG MEETING POSTPONED

The Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID) in collaboration with the Partnership for Increasing the Impact of Vector Control (PIIVeC) is sorry to announce the postpoenement of the meeting of the Technical Vector Control Advisory Group (TVCAG) initially scheduled for March 25, 2020 in Yaounde, Cameroon.

Press Release

The postponement of the 2nd TVCAG annual meeting comes after the government of Cameroon bans all public gatherings following the spread of COVID-19 in Cameroon.

A later date will be scheduled in due time following government’s regulation on the matter.

STORIES

35th IWD; CRID for Gender Equality and Women’s rights in Science

Physical exercise, as it is often said, does much good – and this is the good CRID women did to the entire staff to mark the celebration of the 35TH edition of the International women’s Day, by including physical exercise in the day’s activities.

Since no gender should be left behind, the entire staff, male and female inclusive, set out to celebrate the women in science at CRID by engaging in two main activities; mountain top walk and picnic with conversations.

As soon as it was dawn on March 07, 2020, male and female staff at CRID converged at the heart of the capital city of Cameroon, Bastos- Yaoundé where the team took off for a two-hour walk and physical exercises.  Smartly arrayed and led by a female sports woman, a Certified Teacher of Physical Education and Sports and Federal Sports Instructor Fopeusse Kambeu Terence, the team walked up to one of Yaoundé’s popular mountains known as Monte Febe where they settled for more workouts.

Staff exercing at Monte Febe
Staff exercing at Monte Febe

From Mont Febe down to the Yaoundé Conference centre where open conversations took place on how to make the work place more dynamic and inclusive for women especially given their biological constructs.

One of CRID’s Principal Investigators and Virologist Dr Huguette Simo enlightened the team on the universal state of women in science. She brought to light how other female scientists have been thriving and how others can follow suit. Dr Huguette Simo went further to highlight societal and psychological barriers that favour the underrepresentation of women in Sciences worldwide. She specially congratulated CRID for all the efforts put in place to be an institution where equal opportunities are given to men and women.

Dr. Hugette leading conversations
Dr. Hugette leading conversations

The round circle discussion gave room for conversations such as women’s access to more breastfeeding hours, flexible working hours, women insertions at CRID’s top administrative and decision making positions for proper representation.

Men and women at CRID have equal remuneration for the same work done but is the staff aware of this? A question which the Executive Director of CRID made clear.

Salaries at CRID vary per categories. The remuneration policy is gender-neutral and everyone gets paid for the same value work they put in whether male or female” says Prof Charles Wondji

Activities leading to the celebration of the International Women’s Day at CRID were also marked with an online campaign prior to 8th March. The online campaign involved staff striking the each for equal pose with quotes which highlight the promotion of gender equality and realisation of women’s rights.

Master student striking the EachforEqual pose
Master student striking the EachforEqual pose

The online campaign gave birth to key equality messages which went further to prove the culture of inclusion at CRID and how much women’s rights are supported and promoted.

Since inception, CRID has given room for men and women to thrive on their individual potential as scientific researchers, Lab Technicians or administrators, as the results of a pre-IWD event revealed.

STORIES

Yellow Fever Sensitisation- Dr Basile Kamgang on Radio Maria

As part of CRID’s mission of saving life through quality research, it is also expedient to raise public awareness on diseases infecting humans while supporting disease control programmes with hands-on research to help them make excellent vector control policies. As part of our public engagement activities, Medical Entomologist Dr. Basile Kamgang granted exclusive and extensive interview to Radio Maria on the programme “Santé et Vie”.

During this media outing, Dr. Basile who is an expert researcher on arboviral diseases sensitised the general public on transmission, prevention, symptoms and treatment of Yellow Fever. Every human from zero to infinity age is susceptible to yellow fever.

Yellow Fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic diseases transmited to humans by the bite of an infected mosquitoe especially Aesdes aegyti. Also known as the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti is present on the national territory of Cameroon and bites mainly during the day.

Factors favouring transmission

Human exposure to the mosquito vector particularly when humans come in contact with the forest, low immunization coverage in epidemic risk areas, poor waste management in urban areas which favour vector development.

The Aedes mosquito vector becomes infected during the blood meal in an infected human subject and after an incubation period of approximately 14 days, it becomes infectious and can transmit the virus to a healthy subject when taking another blood meal. It would be interesting to highlight that only female mosquitoes can bite a human. 

Signs & symptoms

Once a human is beaten by an infected mosquito, the human will display symptoms such;

  • Fever;
  • Headache;
  • Muscle aches particularly in your back and knees,;
  • Sensitivity to light;
  • Nausea, vomiting or both;
  • Loss of appetite;
  • Dizziness;
  • Red eyes, face or tongue

These signs and symptoms usually improve and disappear within several days.

How to Prevent Yellow Fever

To successfully prevent yellow will mean first controlling the vector which transmits this disease. So to keep the Aedes aegyti mosquito at arm’s length, it is necessary to take the following in to consideration:

  • Keep environment void of abandoned containers, used tires, tin cans…. Throw away any dish, pot or container which is not been used so as to avoid accumulating water;
  • Avoid storing water in containers without lids. If you must store water at home, ensure such a container is well covered so the mosquito won’t have to lay eggs therein. The Aedes mosquito does not like dirty water, so even if water is clean but not covered, the mosquito will lay her eggs inside;
  • If you have natural plants in your home, ensure to change the water in the vase at least twice a week;
  • Wear clothes that cover your body to avoid bites from this mosquito;
  • Get vaccinated against yellow fever virus. Contrary to other arboviral diseases, there exists in Cameroon a vaccine to protect the population against yellow fever.

It is worthy of note, that yellow fever cannot be transmitted through sexual organs, thus, it is not contagious. Symptoms of yellow fever shouldn’t be confused with that of malaria. As such, it is advisable to go to the nearest health centre to get tested once you see any of these symptoms or more manifest.

STORIES

Road to high insecticide resistance management in Uganda

Uganda presents one of three sites (Mozambique and Cameroon inclusive) with high insecticide resistance profile as research carried out by scientists at the Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID) reveal.

Under Prof Charles Wondji’s Wellcome Trust Senior Fellowship project, a team of researchers from CRID have kick-started the journey of temporal monitoring of insecticide resistance escalation in Uganda. The first step was principally the collection of indoor resting mosquitoes.

Every morning for fourteen (14) days, indoor resting mosquitoes were collected using electric aspirators.  Researchers were assisted by volunteer field workers who were previously trained on this collection technique and on how to handle the mosquitoes collected.

CRID Researcher with volunteer field workers
CRID Researcher with volunteer field workers

Mosquitoes were collected in two districts in Eastern Uganda, Busia and Mayuge which were identified as sites with high density of mosquitoes.

Found in Eastern Uganda, the population of Busia and Mayuge use impregnated bed net as the major vector control tool – standard and PBO-based nets from the mass campaign of 2016-2017 were found in use in these villages.

Collected mosquitoes were made to lay eggs and were brought to the insectary for the rearing of F1 generation to be used for bioassays.

Collection of indoor resting mosquitoes
Collection of indoor resting mosquitoes

Researchers reveal that, by the end of March 2020, the first results on the resistance profiling will be known and evidence generated from this research will serve as springboard to Uganda’s National Malaria Control Programme.

“The completion of this Research will have practical implications for decisions on resistance management taken by the National Malaria Control Programme in this country and help to ensure the continues effectiveness of existing and novel insecticide-based control interventions” says Medical Entomologist on the field Magellan TCHOUAKUI.

STORIES

COMAL 1st Annual Scientific meeting – the birth of a consortium

Member countries of the CO-infection with Plasmodium malariae (COMAL) project convereged in Yaoundé, Cameroon for its first general assembly. The two day annual scientific gathering brought together all four member countries: Gabon, Benin, Democratic Republic of Congo and Cameroon.

Apart revisiting work done by the various country teams, the meeting was also marked by intense brainstorming and generation of recommendations to boost performance, synchronise and improve scientific publications which will further improve its contribution towards eliminating malaria mainly transmitted by Plasmodium malariae.

full section of members in attendance
full section of members in attendance

With the re-emergence of non-falciparum infection like P. malariae, there is need to strengthen capacity and build a strong consortium network which will rapidly generate evidence to speedup the elimination of this vector.

In response to challenge of malaria and little information available on P. malariae, the COMAL project seeks to understand Plasmodium malariae parasite survival strategies to rationally design whole-parasite candidate vaccines.

For sustainability and continuity, the COMAL project which was birth in 2018, has recruited at least Post Doc and PhD student from each of the four countries. And each team is coordinated by the country’s Principal Investigator.