Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors of arboviruses’ diseases such as dengue, zika and chikungunya. Ae. aegypti is indigenous in Central Africa, whereas Ae. albopictus, originating from Asia, was first reported in the region (Cameroon) in the 2000s. Since then, this mosquito has colonized almost all countries of the region coinciding with the emergence of dengue, zika and chikungunya viruses in urban areas in some Central African countries. The control of such diseases is based on entomological surveillance and vector control. This requires extensive background information on the bio-ecology, vector competence and resistance status of the mosquito vectors involved. The current lack of such critical information prevents the design of adequate control measures making this region very vulnerable to likely arbovirus outbreaks. To fill these gaps, I plan in this project to: i) document the geographical distribution and infestation degree of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus; ii) assess their vector competence toward dengue and Zika viruses; iii) characterize their resistance profiles and mechanisms against the main insecticides. This project will help to assess the epidemiological risk of emergence of massive arboviruses’ outbreaks in Central Africa and equip this region to prepare for it.